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Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Dr., Diplomacy 504, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA
Section of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Population Health (Tamaki Campus), University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Air Quality Section, Department of Health and Human Services, Municipality of Anchorage, P.O. Box 196650, Anchorage, AK, 99519-6650, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2010; in revised form: 25 July 2010 / Accepted: 29 July 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
Abstract: Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR’s minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb.
Keywords: MRLs; gasoline exposure; benzene; VOCs; aromatics
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Gordian, M.E.; Stewart, A.W.; Morris, S.S. Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 3051-3062.
Gordian ME, Stewart AW, Morris SS. Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(8):3051-3062.
Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S. 2010. "Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 8: 3051-3062.