Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(2), 427-442; doi:10.3390/ijerph7020427
Article

Potential Risk Factors for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma include Oral Contraceptives: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study

1 Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612, USA 2 Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA 3 Center for Health of Vulnerable Populations, Office of the Dean, School of Nursing, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC 27402, USA 4 Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2009; Accepted: 1 February 2010 / Published: 3 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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Abstract: Recently, a population-based case-control study observed a 60% increased odds ratio (OR) for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among women who had ever used oral contraceptives (OCs) compared with non users (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–2.5). To further characterize the putative association between OC use and SCC risk, we conducted a nested case-control study using a large retrospective cohort of 111,521 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and CIs adjusting for known and hypothesized SCC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic OC use was associated with a statistically significant increased OR for SCC in univariate analysis (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.2–4.8), with borderline statistical significance in multivariable analysis (CI = 2.0, CI = 0.91–4.5). Given the high incidence of SCC in the general population and the prevalent use of OCs among women in the United States, there is a need for more large, carefully designed epidemiologic studies to determine whether the observed association between OC use and SCC can be replicated and to better understand the etiologic basis of an association if one exists.
Keywords: squamous cell carcinoma; oral contraceptives; risk factors; epidemiology

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MDPI and ACS Style

Asgari, M.M.; Efird, J.T.; Warton, E.M.; Friedman, G.D. Potential Risk Factors for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma include Oral Contraceptives: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 427-442.

AMA Style

Asgari MM, Efird JT, Warton EM, Friedman GD. Potential Risk Factors for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma include Oral Contraceptives: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(2):427-442.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asgari, Maryam M.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Warton, E. Margaret; Friedman, Gary D. 2010. "Potential Risk Factors for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma include Oral Contraceptives: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 2: 427-442.

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