Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(1), 146-163; doi:10.3390/ijerph7010146
Article

Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

1email and 2,* email
Received: 30 December 2009; Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Environmental Research)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: A body of empirical research has revealed that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is related to a host of negative outcomes, including reduced cognitive abilities, later-life health problems, and childhood behavioral problems. While these findings are often interpreted as evidence of the causal role that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke has on human phenotypes, emerging evidence has suggested that the association between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and behavioral phenotypes may be spurious. The current analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that the association between prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and externalizing behavioral problems was fully accounted for by confounding factors. The implications that these findings have for policy and research are discussed.
Keywords: behavioral problems; cigarette; childhood; prenatal; smoking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boutwell, B.B.; Beaver, K.M. Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 146-163.

AMA Style

Boutwell BB, Beaver KM. Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(1):146-163.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boutwell, Brian B.; Beaver, Kevin M. 2010. "Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 1: 146-163.

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