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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(7), 1930-1946; doi:10.3390/ijerph6071930
Article

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

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Received: 27 April 2009; Accepted: 28 June 2009 / Published: 2 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers’ had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke.
Keywords: secondhand smoke (SHS); metals; youth; lead; cadmium; race/ethnicity; tobacco smoke; smoker; toxicity secondhand smoke (SHS); metals; youth; lead; cadmium; race/ethnicity; tobacco smoke; smoker; toxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Richter, P.A.; Bishop, E.E.; Wang, J.; Swahn, M.H. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1930-1946.

AMA Style

Richter PA, Bishop EE, Wang J, Swahn MH. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(7):1930-1946.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Richter, Patricia A.; Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Swahn, Monica H. 2009. "Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 7: 1930-1946.



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