- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(5), 1557-1596; doi:10.3390/ijerph6051557
2. Trans-disciplinary Research Teams
2.1. Trans-Disciplinary – Definition and Methodology
“Transdisciplinary thinking is primarily a process of assembling and mapping the possible interconnections of disciplinary knowledge about any given…problem until the fullest possible understanding of the problem emerges” .“Transdisciplinarity is an integrative process in which researchers work jointly to develop and use a shared conceptual framework that synthesizes and extends discipline-specific theories, concepts, methods, or all three to create new models and language to address a common research problem” .
- problem definition;
- assembling a team of researchers;
- reviewing existing knowledge on the research problem, especially disciplinary and interdisciplinary conceptualizations and explanations;
- designing the research enquiry from research gaps; implementing the research enquiry;
- refining conceptual understandings and synthesizing data sets; and
- recommending the types of interventions (usually with stakeholders) to resolve the problem.
2.2. Example of Aircraft Noise and Community Health (Stress)
2.3. Trans-Disciplinary Research into Transport and Health
3. Conceptual Representation
4. Literature Review
4.1. Literature on Human Settlements, Density and Heath
4.2. Literature on Transport Impacts on Health
- “Exposure to fine and coarse PM in ambient air has been associated with a short-term increase in mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
- Studies have found long-term average mortality rates 17% – 26% higher than expected in communities with high levels of fine particulate matter.
- Diesel exhaust and nitrogen dioxide have been tied to increased asthma symptoms and response to allergens.
- Exposure to diesel exhaust has also been associated with increased rates of lung cancer and mortality and morbidity.
- Air toxics can cause negative health effects including cancer and respiratory, neurological, reproductive, and developmental effects.”
- significant increase in the risk of death from cardiopulmonary causes
- significant increase in asthma prevalence in children
- impacts on lung development in children
- increased cardiac arrhythmias
4.3. Literature on Visualization and GIS
4.4. Future Issues – Climate Change
- Association between heavy rainfall and Ross River virus disease.
- Both insects and insect-borne diseases (including malaria and dengue fever) have been experienced at increasingly higher altitudes in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
- Heavy rainfall may cause outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis which causes severe diarrheic diseases in children and can cause death in immuno-compromised individuals.
- An increase of the temperature can activate the blooms and vibrios (cholera) in fishes.
- The emergence of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome may be linked to heavy rainfall resulting in growth in rodent populations and subsequent disease transmission.
- Extreme flooding or hurricanes can lead to outbreaks of leptospirosis and by their violent nature, natural disasters like storms, floods, cyclones, have the potential to cause morbidity, mortality, and property loss .
4.5. Classification of the Knowledge Base and Research Gaps 
“The spatial and temporal dynamics of social and environmental determinants of human health in urban systems. Who gets sick and where do they live? What are the relative contributions of social versus environmental factors? What types of interventions are available and appropriate?
Measures of health in different urban forms. What contribution does urban pattern and social–ecological processes in urban environments make to the functionality of urban habitats? Can we identify the characteristics of dysfunctional and functional urban landscapes and incorporate this knowledge into better urban planning, design, construction and management?”
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|CONCEPTS AND DOMAINS||DEFINITIONS / INDICATORS|
|Social or cultural disadvantage
|General health perceptions
Satisfaction with health
|Limitations in usual roles
Intimacy and sexual function
|DEATH AND DURATION OF LIFE|
|Interaction||Geographical Scale||Main Exposed Group|
|Road and rail noise – sleep disturbance, annoyance, stress||Localized - noise attenuates with increasing distance||All groups in population, but greater impact on low – medium socio-economic status|
|Cyclists and ultra fine particulate matter inhalation||Localized – on road||Cyclists especially in morning peak|
|Aircraft noise - sleep disturbance, annoyance, stress||Area surrounding airport within 15–20 NEF||All groups with greater impact on low socio-economic status|
|Leaded petrol and child development||Localized to houses playgrounds on main roads, but note residual lead from paint within houses and gardens||Young children|
|Low density suburbs and stress||Suburban||Lower socio-economic status and those without access to automobile and reliable public transport|
|Car dependency and obesity||Urban, especially suburban||Adults and children|
|Transport emissions and air quality||Metropolitan air-shed||All groups, with dispersal modified by local meteorological conditions|
|Freeways and vehicle emissions and respiratory problems||within 500m – 1000m||All groups, especially young and elderly, and sub-groups|
|Diesel trucks, particulate matter and health||Near sea-ports, along major roads and truck routes||All groups but with a distinct socio-economic dimension|
|Accessibility and quality of life||Local neighborhood with emphasis on street design & pedestrian environments||All groups|
|Footpath design and standards pedestrian injuries||Localized around home to neighborhood activities||All groups but especially young and elderly|
|Poor dwelling design and layout and accidents in home||Household||Young children and elderly|
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