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Well Water Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Induced Skin-Lesions and Self-Reported Morbidity in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia Center for Endemic Disease Control and Research, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, China
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
Ba Men Anti Epidemic Station, Bayingnormen, Inner Mongolia, China
University of Alberta, Department of Public Health Sciences, Edmonton, Canada
Chinese Academy of Preventative Medicine, Institute of Environmental Health & Engineering, Beijing, China
Computer Sciences Corporation, RTP, North Carolina, USA
Hangjin Hou Centers for Disease Control, Inner Mongolia, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2009; Accepted: 26 February 2009 / Published: 9 March 2009
Abstract: Residents of the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia have been exposed to arsenic-contaminated well water for over 20 years, but relatively few studies have investigated health effects in this region. We surveyed one village to document exposure to arsenic and assess the prevalence of arsenic-associated skin lesions and self-reported morbidity. Five-percent (632) of the 12,334 residents surveyed had skin lesions characteristics of arsenic exposure. Skin lesions were strongly associated with well water arsenic and there was an elevated prevalence among residents with water arsenic exposures as low as 5 μg/L-10 μg/L. The presence of skin lesions was also associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Arsenic; drinking water; Inner Mongolia; hyperkeratosis; skin lesions
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Xia, Y.; Wade, T.J.; Wu, K.; Li, Y.; Ning, Z.; Le, X.C.; Chen, B.; Feng, Y.; Mumford, J.L.; He, X. Well Water Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Induced Skin-Lesions and Self-Reported Morbidity in Inner Mongolia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1010-1025.
Xia Y, Wade TJ, Wu K, Li Y, Ning Z, Le XC, Chen B, Feng Y, Mumford JL, He X. Well Water Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Induced Skin-Lesions and Self-Reported Morbidity in Inner Mongolia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(3):1010-1025.
Xia, Yajuan; Wade, Timothy J.; Wu, Kegong; Li, Yanhong; Ning, Zhixiong; Le, X Chris; Chen, Binfei; Feng, Yong; Mumford, Judy L.; He, Xingzhou. 2009. "Well Water Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Induced Skin-Lesions and Self-Reported Morbidity in Inner Mongolia." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 3: 1010-1025.