Next Article in Journal
Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias
Next Article in Special Issue
Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Exercise Trained and Sedentary Cigarette Smokers
Previous Article in Journal
A Study of 279 General Outbreaks of Gastrointestinal Infection in the North-East Region of England
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 558-567; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020558
Article

Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking

Received: 21 November 2008; Accepted: 20 January 2009 / Published: 5 February 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2510 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation) and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv/y (average 79.7 μSv/y), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv/y (average 67.1 μSv/y) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv/y (average 104.7 μSv/y), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv/y (average 251.5 μSv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y).
Keywords: Radioactivity; tobacco leaves; radiation dose; smoking Radioactivity; tobacco leaves; radiation dose; smoking
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Papastefanou, C. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 558-567.

AMA Style

Papastefanou C. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(2):558-567.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Papastefanou, Constantin. 2009. "Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 2: 558-567.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert