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Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers
Behavioral Psychopharmacology Research Laboratory, McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2008 / Accepted: 2 February 2009 / Published: 5 February 2009
Abstract: The present report shows that nicotine enhances some of alcohol’s positive and negative effects in women and that these effects are most pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten low progesterone and 10 high progesterone/luteal-phase women received nicotine patch pretreatments (placebo or 21 mg) 3 hours before an alcohol challenge (0.4 g/kg). Subjective effects were recorded on mood adjective scales and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded. Luteal-phase women reported peak positive (e.g. “stimulated”) and peak negative effects (e.g. “clumsy”, “dizzy”) almost twice as great as low progesterone women.
Keywords: Transdermal nicotine; alcohol; subjective effects; menstrual cycle; progesterone
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MDPI and ACS Style
Penetar, D.M.; Kouri, E.M.; McCarthy, E.M.; Lilly, M.M.; Peters, E.N.; Juliano, T.M.; Lukas, S.E. Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 526-546.
Penetar DM, Kouri EM, McCarthy EM, Lilly MM, Peters EN, Juliano TM, Lukas SE. Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(2):526-546.
Penetar, David M.; Kouri, Elena M.; McCarthy, Elissa M.; Lilly, Michelle M.; Peters, Erica N.; Juliano, Trisha M.; Lukas, Scott E. 2009. "Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 2: 526-546.