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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 526-546; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020526
Article

Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers

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Received: 27 November 2008; Accepted: 2 February 2009 / Published: 5 February 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: The present report shows that nicotine enhances some of alcohol’s positive and negative effects in women and that these effects are most pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten low progesterone and 10 high progesterone/luteal-phase women received nicotine patch pretreatments (placebo or 21 mg) 3 hours before an alcohol challenge (0.4 g/kg). Subjective effects were recorded on mood adjective scales and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded. Luteal-phase women reported peak positive (e.g. “stimulated”) and peak negative effects (e.g. “clumsy”, “dizzy”) almost twice as great as low progesterone women.
Keywords: Transdermal nicotine; alcohol; subjective effects; menstrual cycle; progesterone Transdermal nicotine; alcohol; subjective effects; menstrual cycle; progesterone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Penetar, D.M.; Kouri, E.M.; McCarthy, E.M.; Lilly, M.M.; Peters, E.N.; Juliano, T.M.; Lukas, S.E. Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 526-546.

AMA Style

Penetar DM, Kouri EM, McCarthy EM, Lilly MM, Peters EN, Juliano TM, Lukas SE. Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(2):526-546.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Penetar, David M.; Kouri, Elena M.; McCarthy, Elissa M.; Lilly, Michelle M.; Peters, Erica N.; Juliano, Trisha M.; Lukas, Scott E. 2009. "Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 2: 526-546.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert