Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 463-477; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020463
Article

Estimating Intervention Effects in a Complex Multi-Level Smoking Prevention Study

1 Biostatistics Group, School of Community-Based Medicine, University of Manchester, UK 2 Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group, University of Manchester, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2008; Accepted: 22 January 2009 / Published: 3 February 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract: This paper illustrates how to estimate cumulative and non-cumulative treatment effects in a complex school-based smoking intervention study. The Instrumental Variable method is used to tackle non-compliance and measurement error for a range of treatment exposure measures (binary, ordinal and continuous) in the presence of clustering and drop-out. The results are compared to more routine analyses. The empirical findings from this study provide little encouragement for believing that poorly resourced school-based interventions can bring about substantial long-lasting reductions in smoking behaviour but that novel components such as a computer game might have some short-term effect.
Keywords: Instrumental variables; multi-level intervention study; non-compliance; treatment effect

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MDPI and ACS Style

Falcaro, M.; Povey, A.C.; Fielder, A.; Nahit, E.; Pickles, A. Estimating Intervention Effects in a Complex Multi-Level Smoking Prevention Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 463-477.

AMA Style

Falcaro M, Povey AC, Fielder A, Nahit E, Pickles A. Estimating Intervention Effects in a Complex Multi-Level Smoking Prevention Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(2):463-477.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Falcaro, Milena; Povey, Andrew C.; Fielder, Anne; Nahit, Elizabeth; Pickles, Andrew. 2009. "Estimating Intervention Effects in a Complex Multi-Level Smoking Prevention Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 2: 463-477.

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