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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 463-477; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020463

Estimating Intervention Effects in a Complex Multi-Level Smoking Prevention Study

1
Biostatistics Group, School of Community-Based Medicine, University of Manchester, UK
2
Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group, University of Manchester, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2008 / Accepted: 22 January 2009 / Published: 3 February 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Abstract

This paper illustrates how to estimate cumulative and non-cumulative treatment effects in a complex school-based smoking intervention study. The Instrumental Variable method is used to tackle non-compliance and measurement error for a range of treatment exposure measures (binary, ordinal and continuous) in the presence of clustering and drop-out. The results are compared to more routine analyses. The empirical findings from this study provide little encouragement for believing that poorly resourced school-based interventions can bring about substantial long-lasting reductions in smoking behaviour but that novel components such as a computer game might have some short-term effect.
Keywords: Instrumental variables; multi-level intervention study; non-compliance; treatment effect Instrumental variables; multi-level intervention study; non-compliance; treatment effect
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Falcaro, M.; Povey, A.C.; Fielder, A.; Nahit, E.; Pickles, A. Estimating Intervention Effects in a Complex Multi-Level Smoking Prevention Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 463-477.

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