Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(12), 2992-3009; doi:10.3390/ijerph6122992
Review

Dental Caries Risk Studies Revisited: Causal Approaches Needed for Future Inquiries

1 Department of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of British Columbia, 2199 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada 2 Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Blindern POB 1052, 0316 Oslo, Norway 3 Institute of Odontology, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Žalgirio st. 115, Vilnius 08217, Lithuania
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2009; Accepted: 25 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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Abstract: Prediction of high-risk individuals and the multi-risk approach are common inquiries in caries risk epidemiology. These studies prepared the ground for future studies; specific hypotheses about causal patterns can now be formulated and tested applying advanced statistical methods designed for causal studies, such as structural equation modeling, path analysis and multilevel modeling. Causal studies should employ measurements, analyses and interpretation of findings, which are in accordance to causal aims. Examples of causal empirical studies from medical and oral research are presented.
Keywords: caries risk; prediction; multi-risk; explanation; causal studies

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aleksejūnienė, J.; Holst, D.; Brukienė, V. Dental Caries Risk Studies Revisited: Causal Approaches Needed for Future Inquiries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2992-3009.

AMA Style

Aleksejūnienė J, Holst D, Brukienė V. Dental Caries Risk Studies Revisited: Causal Approaches Needed for Future Inquiries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(12):2992-3009.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Holst, Dorthe; Brukienė, Vilma. 2009. "Dental Caries Risk Studies Revisited: Causal Approaches Needed for Future Inquiries." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 12: 2992-3009.

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