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Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem
Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna, Austria
Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases and Division of Geriatric Medicine, Leuven University, Universitaire Ziekenhuizen, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium
Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Calcium Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Agnes Sjobergin katu 2, F-00014 Helsinki, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2009; Accepted: 28 September 2009 / Published: 2 October 2009
Abstract: Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies are risk factors for multiple chronic diseases. Data from 46 recent studies from Europe, North America, South-East Asia and the South Pacific area clearly indicate that a low vitamin D status and inadequate calcium nutrition are highly prevalent in the general population (30–80%), affecting both genders. The extent of insufficiencies is particularly high in older populations, and in some geographical areas, also in children and in young women of child-bearing age, in ethnic minorities and immigrants, as well as in people of low socio-economic status. Enrichment of cereal grain products with vitamin D and calcium would be a viable approach to increase consumption and improve health outcomes in the general population worldwide.
Keywords: vitamin D status; calcium intake; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D; calcium-sensing receptor; osteoporosis; colorectal cancer; breast cancer; prevention; food fortification
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MDPI and ACS Style
Peterlik, M.; Boonen, S.; Cross, H.S.; Lamberg-Allardt, C. Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2585-2607.
Peterlik M, Boonen S, Cross HS, Lamberg-Allardt C. Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(10):2585-2607.
Peterlik, Meinrad; Boonen, Steven; Cross, Heide S.; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel. 2009. "Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 10: 2585-2607.