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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(10), 2585-2607; doi:10.3390/ijerph6102585
Review

Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem

1,* , 2
, 1
 and 3
1 Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna, Austria 2 Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases and Division of Geriatric Medicine, Leuven University, Universitaire Ziekenhuizen, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium 3 Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Calcium Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Agnes Sjobergin katu 2, F-00014 Helsinki, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2009 / Accepted: 28 September 2009 / Published: 2 October 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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Abstract

Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies are risk factors for multiple chronic diseases. Data from 46 recent studies from Europe, North America, South-East Asia and the South Pacific area clearly indicate that a low vitamin D status and inadequate calcium nutrition are highly prevalent in the general population (30–80%), affecting both genders. The extent of insufficiencies is particularly high in older populations, and in some geographical areas, also in children and in young women of child-bearing age, in ethnic minorities and immigrants, as well as in people of low socio-economic status. Enrichment of cereal grain products with vitamin D and calcium would be a viable approach to increase consumption and improve health outcomes in the general population worldwide.
Keywords: vitamin D status; calcium intake; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D; calcium-sensing receptor; osteoporosis; colorectal cancer; breast cancer; prevention; food fortification vitamin D status; calcium intake; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D; calcium-sensing receptor; osteoporosis; colorectal cancer; breast cancer; prevention; food fortification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Peterlik, M.; Boonen, S.; Cross, H.S.; Lamberg-Allardt, C. Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2585-2607.

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