Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 267-277; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010267
Review

A Multivariate Approach to a Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. Program

1,* email and 2email
1 Division of Educational Studies and Leadership, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210049, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA 2 Department of Educational Research, Technology, and Leadership, University of Central Florida, P.O. Box 161250, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2008; Accepted: 8 January 2009 / Published: 13 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Abuse and Addiction)
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Abstract: The Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) program is a widespread but controversial school-based drug prevention program in the United States as well as in many other countries. The present multivariate meta-analysis reviewed 20 studies that assessed the effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. program in the United States. The results showed that the effects of the D.A.R.E. program on drug use did not vary across the studies with a less than small overall effect while the effects on psychosocial behavior varied with still a less than small overall effect. In addition, the characteristics of the studies significantly explained the variation of the heterogeneous effects on psychosocial behavior, which provides empirical evidence for improving the school-based drug prevention program.
Keywords: D.A.R.E.; drug use; tobacco; alcohol; meta-analysis; research synthesis

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, W.; Bai, H. A Multivariate Approach to a Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. Program. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 267-277.

AMA Style

Pan W, Bai H. A Multivariate Approach to a Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. Program. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(1):267-277.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pan, Wei; Bai, Haiyan. 2009. "A Multivariate Approach to a Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. Program." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 1: 267-277.

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