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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(5), 356-367; doi:10.3390/ijerph5050356
Article

Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

1,* , 1, 1, 2, 2, 3 and 1
Received: 28 July 2008; Accepted: 6 October 2008 / Published: 31 December 2008
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Abstract: An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.
Keywords: water recycling; water quality; persistent organic pollutants; health risk assessment water recycling; water quality; persistent organic pollutants; health risk assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodriguez, C.; Cook, A.; Devine, B.; Van Buynder, P.; Lugg, R.; Linge, K.; Weinstein, P. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5, 356-367.

AMA Style

Rodriguez C, Cook A, Devine B, Van Buynder P, Lugg R, Linge K, Weinstein P. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2008; 5(5):356-367.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip. 2008. "Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 5, no. 5: 356-367.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert