Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(5), 356-367; doi:10.3390/ijerph5050356
Article

Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

1 School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, (M431) Crawley WA 6009 Western Australia, Australia 2 Department of Health, Government of Western Australia, Grace Vaughan House 227 Stubbs Terrace, Shenton Park, WA 6008 Western Australia, Australia 3 Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845 Western Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 July 2008; Accepted: 6 October 2008 / Published: 31 December 2008
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Abstract: An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.
Keywords: water recycling; water quality; persistent organic pollutants; health risk assessment

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodriguez, C.; Cook, A.; Devine, B.; Van Buynder, P.; Lugg, R.; Linge, K.; Weinstein, P. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5, 356-367.

AMA Style

Rodriguez C, Cook A, Devine B, Van Buynder P, Lugg R, Linge K, Weinstein P. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2008; 5(5):356-367.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip. 2008. "Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 5, no. 5: 356-367.

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