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Cytotoxicity of Dinitrotoluenes (2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT ) to MCF-7 and MRC-5 Cells
Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA
Molecular Toxicology Research Laboratory, NIH-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
Neuroscience/Drug Abuse Program, JLC-BBRI, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2005; Accepted: 10 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Abstract: DNTs are considered possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) because there is inadequate evidence in humans for carcinogenicity though there is sufficient evidence in experimental animals. In this study, MCF-7 (breast) and MRC-5 (lung) cells were exposed to a serial dilution of 2,4 and 2,6 DNTs (control, 1-500 ppm) in 96 well tissue culture plates. After various time intervals (24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs) the plates were washed, and 100μl fluorescein diacetate solution (10 μg/ml in PBS) was added column wise to each well, and incubated at 37°C for 30 - 60 min before reading the fluorescence with a spectrofluorometer at excitation and emission wavelengths of 485 and 538 nm respectively. Spectrofluorometeric readings were converted to percentages of cell survival. Regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between cell survival and exposed concentration. Linear equations derived from the regression analysis were used to calculate the LC50 values. Results indicated that 2,6 DNT was more toxic to breast cells; LC50 values were 445 and 292 ppm at 24 and 48 hours respectively compared to 2,4 DNT showing LC50 values of 570 and 407 ppm at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. No significant differences in toxicity existed between the two chemicals with regard to lung cells. Contrary to the above observation, 2,4 DNT was more toxic to breast cells; LC50 values were 407 and 238 ppm at 24 and 48 hours respectively compared to lung cells showing LC50 values of 527 and 402 ppm at 24 and 48 hours respectively. No significant difference existed for 2,6 DNT between the two cell lines. Lungs cells were more resistant to the two chemicals.
Keywords: Dinitrotoluenes; cytotoxicity; breast cancer cells (MCF-7); lung cells (MRC-5)
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Ishaque, A.B.; Timmons, C.; Ballard, F.V.; Hupke, C.; Dulal, K.; Johnson, L.R.; Gerald, T.M.; Boucaud, D.; Tchounwou, P.B. Cytotoxicity of Dinitrotoluenes (2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT ) to MCF-7 and MRC-5 Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 304-307.
Ishaque AB, Timmons C, Ballard FV, Hupke C, Dulal K, Johnson LR, Gerald TM, Boucaud D, Tchounwou PB. Cytotoxicity of Dinitrotoluenes (2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT ) to MCF-7 and MRC-5 Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(2):304-307.
Ishaque, Ali B.; Timmons, Christine; Ballard, Frederick V.; Hupke, Carine; Dulal, Kalpana; Johnson, Linda R.; Gerald, Tonya M.; Boucaud, Dwayne; Tchounwou, Paul B. 2005. "Cytotoxicity of Dinitrotoluenes (2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT ) to MCF-7 and MRC-5 Cells." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 2: 304-307.