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Changes of Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) in New Orleans Soil: Preliminary Evaluation of Differences between Survey I (1992) and Survey II (2000)
College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
Professor Emeritus, Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2005 / Accepted: 30 April 2005 / Published: 14 August 2005
Abstract: Soil metal surveys were conducted in Baltimore, MD (1976-1979), Minnesota (1981-1988) and most recently, New Orleans, LA (1989-present). The unique characteristic of New Orleans is that it has two surveys; Survey I was completed in 1992 and Survey II was completed in 2000. This paper seeks to determine if there is a perceptible change in the amount of metals during less than a decade that separated these surveys. The Survey I collection was 4,026 samples stratified by 283 census tracts. All samples were collected in residential neighborhoods at least one block from a busy street. The Survey II collection was 5,467 samples stratified by 286 census tracts (plus City Park). The Survey II collection included busy streets as a category of samples. For comparison, the busy street category of 1,078 samples was excluded from Survey II for a total of 4,388 samples. The extraction methods of the two surveys used the same protocol for strength of acid (1 M HNO3), shaker-time (2 hours), and room temperature (~22ºC). However, Survey II differed in amount of sample used in extraction. For Surveys I and II, 4.0g and 0.4g were used respectively. The same ICP-AES was used to measure 8 metals in both surveys. To evaluate the analytical results of the two methods, reference soil samples (n=36) from the Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories, International Soil-analytical Exchange (WEPAL; ISE) were used. The relationship between the 4.0 and 0.4 g results were linear and the Survey I results were adjusted for sample:acid ratio. Further evaluation was done by creating interpolated Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) maps based on the median MMA for each census tract. A new map was created by dividing Survey II MMA by Survey I MMA. The ratio indicates increases of soil metals in the inner city and decreases of soil metals in the outlying areas of Metropolitan New Orleans. Comparing fresh parent alluvium from the Mississippi River with urban soil metal quantities demonstrates that the soils of New Orleans have undergone a massive accumulation of metals. The preliminary results provide ideas about methods needed to further evaluate the changes between these surveys.
Keywords: urban soil; multiple soil metals; changes over time
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Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.; Powell, E.; Mielke, P.W., Jr. Changes of Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) in New Orleans Soil: Preliminary Evaluation of Differences between Survey I (1992) and Survey II (2000). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2005, 2, 308-313.
Mielke HW, Gonzales C, Powell E, Mielke PW, Jr. Changes of Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) in New Orleans Soil: Preliminary Evaluation of Differences between Survey I (1992) and Survey II (2000). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2005; 2(2):308-313.
Mielke, Howard W.; Gonzales, Christopher; Powell, Eric; Mielke, Paul W., Jr. 2005. "Changes of Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) in New Orleans Soil: Preliminary Evaluation of Differences between Survey I (1992) and Survey II (2000)." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2, no. 2: 308-313.