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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010040

Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

1,2,†
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3,†
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3
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4,5
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5,6
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5,6,‡,* and 1,2,‡,*
1
Department of Medical Informatics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
2
Catholic Institute for Healthcare Management and Graduate School of Healthcare Management and Policy, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
3
Department of Industrial & Management Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 37673, Korea
4
Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
5
Addiction Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
6
Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Both corresponding authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet and Mobile Phone Addiction: Health and Educational Effects)
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Abstract

Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: internet gaming disorder; Dickman Impulsivity Inventory-Short Version (DII); Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS); Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R); Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS); Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) internet gaming disorder; Dickman Impulsivity Inventory-Short Version (DII); Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS); Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R); Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS); Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Rho, M.J.; Lee, H.; Lee, T.-H.; Cho, H.; Jung, D.J.; Kim, D.-J.; Choi, I.Y. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 40.

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