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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010027

Association between Exposure to Ambient Air Particulates and Metabolic Syndrome Components in a Saudi Arabian Population

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Meteorology, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10987, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulates may be a factor in the etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this novel study, we investigated the relationship between particulate levels and prevalence of MetS component abnormalities (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity) in a recruited cohort (N = 2025) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We observed significant associations between a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and increased risks for MetS (Risk Ratio (RR): 1.12; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.06–1.19), hyperglycemia (RR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03–1.14), and hypertension (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04–1.14). PM2.5 from soil/road dust was found to be associated with hyperglycemia (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06–1.19) and hypertension (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05–1.18), while PM2.5 from traffic was associated with hyperglycemia (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05–1.71). We did not observe any health associations with source-specific mass exposures. Our findings suggest that exposure to specific elemental components of PM2.5, especially Ni, may contribute to the development of cardiometabolic disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; particulate matter; metabolic syndrome; hypertension; diabetes; hyperglycemia air pollution; particulate matter; metabolic syndrome; hypertension; diabetes; hyperglycemia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Shamy, M.; Alghamdi, M.; Khoder, M.I.; Mohorjy, A.M.; Alkhatim, A.A.; Alkhalaf, A.K.; Brocato, J.; Chen, L.C.; Thurston, G.D.; Lim, C.C.; Costa, M. Association between Exposure to Ambient Air Particulates and Metabolic Syndrome Components in a Saudi Arabian Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 27.

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