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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1083; doi:10.3390/ijerph14091083

Green Space and Depression during Pregnancy: Results from the Growing Up in New Zealand Study

1
Section of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
2
School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
3
Centre for Longitudinal Research he Ara ki Mua, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
4
Department of Pediatrics: Child and Youth Health, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
5
General Pediatrics, Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Environmental Exposures)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [356 KB, uploaded 18 September 2017]

Abstract

Background: Antenatal depression is an important contributor to poor maternal health experienced by some women. This study aimed to determine whether exposure to green space during pregnancy is associated with less depression, and whether this association is moderated by relevant factors, such as age, education, self-identified ethnicity, physical activity, residential rurality, and socioeconomic status. Methods: Health data were sourced from the cohort study “Growing Up in New Zealand” comprised of 6772 participants. Green space was estimated based on the proportion of green space within the Census Area Unit. Adjusted logistic mixed effect models were used to investigate the association between green space and antenatal depression after controlling for confounding variables. Results: Maternal exposure to green space were not associated with lower odds of antenatal depression. Indications of effect modifications due to relevant factors were not observed. Conclusions: This study did not determine an association between access to green space (measured based on the distance to the nearest green space) and antenatal depression. Therefore, a link between green space and antenatal depression was not established. For that reason, ensuring residential areas contain adequate green space may or may not be helpful in preventing antenatal depression and adverse health outcomes associated with this depression. More studies focusing on pregnant women in a range of social contexts, and considering both exposure and access to green space, are warranted to determine the relationships between green space and antenatal depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: antenatal depression; green spaces; census area units; geographic information systems; multilevel data antenatal depression; green spaces; census area units; geographic information systems; multilevel data
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nichani, V.; Dirks, K.; Burns, B.; Bird, A.; Grant, C. Green Space and Depression during Pregnancy: Results from the Growing Up in New Zealand Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1083.

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