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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091009

Microbiological Impact of the Use of Reclaimed Wastewater in Recreational Parks

1
Circuito Universitario S/N Campus Universitario II, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Chih 31125, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Microbiología Ambiental, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), Calle IPN 195, La Paz, B.C.S. 20396, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Abstract

Reclaimed wastewater for irrigation is an opportunity for recovery of this natural resource. In this study, microbial risk from the use of treated wastewater for irrigation of recreational parks in the city of Chihuahua, evaluating the effect of distribution distance, season, and presence of storage tanks, was analyzed. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and multidrug-resistant bacteria were recovered from samples of reclaimed water and soils at recreational parks in Chihuahua by the membrane filtration method, using selected agars for microbial growth. Samples were taken at three different seasons. No correlation in the presence of microbial indicators and multidrug-resistant bacteria (p > 0.05) was found between the distance from the wastewater treatment plant to the point of use. Presence of storage tanks in parks showed a significant effect (p < 0.05) with a higher level of E. coli. The highest count in wastewater occurred in summer. We isolated 392 multidrug-resistant bacteria from water and soil; cluster analysis showed that the microorganisms at each location were of different origins. Irrigation with reclaimed wastewater did not have a negative effect on the presence of microbial indicators of the quality of soils in the parks. However, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria still represents a potential risk factor for human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater; recreational parks; E. coli; Salmonella; multidrug-resistant bacteria wastewater; recreational parks; E. coli; Salmonella; multidrug-resistant bacteria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Palacios, O.A.; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, F.J.; Ballinas-Casarrubias, M.L.; Espino-Valdés, M.S.; Nevárez-Moorillón, G.V. Microbiological Impact of the Use of Reclaimed Wastewater in Recreational Parks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1009.

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