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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070796

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment

1
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Health and Work Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
3
Bureau of Quality Assurance, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
4
Department of Biological and Environmental Monitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
5
Center for Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, National Institute of Health, I-00161 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Influences on Maternal and Child Health)
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Abstract

The developing fetus is especially vulnerable to environmental toxicants, including tobacco constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment within the first two years of life. The study population consisted of 461 non-smoking pregnant women (saliva cotinine level <10 ng/mL). Maternal passive smoking was assessed based on the cotinine level in saliva analyzed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS) and by questionnaire data. The cotinine cut-off value for passive smoking was established at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of one- and two-years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Approximately 30% of the women were exposed to ETS during pregnancy. The multivariate linear regression model indicated that ETS exposure in the 1st and the 2nd trimesters of pregnancy were associated with decreasing child language functions at the age of one (β = −3.0, p = 0.03, and β = −4.1, p = 0.008, respectively), and two years (β = −3.8, p = 0.05, and β = −6.3, p = 0.005, respectively). A negative association was found for cotinine level ≥1.5 ng/mL in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy and child cognition at the age of 2 (β = −4.6, p = 0.05), as well as cotinine levels ≥1.5 ng/mL in all trimesters of pregnancy and child motor abilities at two years of age (β = −3.9, p = 0.06, β = −5.3, p = 0.02, and β = −4.2, p = 0.05, for the 1st, the 2nd, and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, respectively; for the 1st trimester the effect was of borderline statistical significance). This study confirmed that ETS exposure during pregnancy can have a negative impact on child psychomotor development within the first two years of life and underscore the importance of public health interventions aiming at reducing this exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; passive smoking; pregnancy; prenatal period; child neurodevelopment; cognitive; language and motor functions environmental tobacco smoke; passive smoking; pregnancy; prenatal period; child neurodevelopment; cognitive; language and motor functions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Polanska, K.; Krol, A.; Merecz-Kot, D.; Ligocka, D.; Mikolajewska, K.; Mirabella, F.; Chiarotti, F.; Calamandrei, G.; Hanke, W. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 796.

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