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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070784

Correlations of Biomarkers and Self-Reported Seafood Consumption among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Southeastern Louisiana after the Gulf Oil Spill: The GROWH Study

1
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
2
Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences, Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
3
Department of Global Biostatistics and Data Science, Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA, sarti@tulane.edu
4
Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Influences on Maternal and Child Health)
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Abstract

Seafood contains health-promoting fatty acids, but is often contaminated with mercury (Hg), complicating recommendations and choices around fish consumption during pregnancy. Self-reported diet may be subject to inaccuracy and this inaccuracy could differ according to pregnancy status. We investigated correlations between self-reported seafood consumption and blood levels of Hg and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in women affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated comparing log blood Hg and n-3 PUFAs to seafood consumption, then stratified by pregnancy status. Crude and adjusted linear regression models were constructed using biomarkers of Hg and n-3 PUFA and seafood consumption, adjusting for age and pregnancy status. Weak but significant correlations were found between log Hg levels and intake of Hg-containing seafood ( r = 0.15) and were slightly stronger among pregnant women ( r = 0.22, vs. r = 0.10). Biomarkers for n-3 PUFAs were significantly correlated with seafood consumption ( r = 0.12). Hg-containing seafood consumption was associated with increased blood level Hg in the highest quartile in both unadjusted (β = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15–0.53) and adjusted models (β = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.08–0.48). Self-reported seafood consumption was correlated with biomarkers of both n-3 PUFA and Hg, but this association was different when stratified by pregnancy status. Pregnant women may have better recall of Hg-containing seafood compared to nonpregnant women. View Full-Text
Keywords: seafood consumption; mercury exposure; food frequency questionnaires; pregnancy; polyunsaturated fatty acids seafood consumption; mercury exposure; food frequency questionnaires; pregnancy; polyunsaturated fatty acids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zilversmit, L.; Wickliffe, J.; Shankar, A.; Taylor, R.J.; Harville, E.W. Correlations of Biomarkers and Self-Reported Seafood Consumption among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Southeastern Louisiana after the Gulf Oil Spill: The GROWH Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 784.

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