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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 795; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070795

Individual and Interactive Effects of Socio-Ecological Factors on Dengue Fever at Fine Spatial Scale: A Geographical Detector-Based Analysis

4,* and 3,*
Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430, China
School of Geographical Sciencesof Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Congdon
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1863 KB, uploaded 17 July 2017]   |  


Background: Large spatial heterogeneity was observed in the dengue fever outbreak in Guangzhou in 2014, however, the underlying reasons remain unknown. We examined whether socio-ecological factors affected the spatial distribution and their interactive effects. Methods: Moran’s I was applied to first examine the spatial cluster of dengue fever in Guangzhou. Nine socio-ecological factors were chosen to represent the urbanization level, economy, accessibility, environment, and the weather of the 167 townships/streets in Guangzhou, and then the geographical detector was applied to analyze the individual and interactive effects of these factors on the dengue outbreak. Results: Four clusters of dengue fever were identified in Guangzhou in 2014, including one hot spot in the central area of Guangzhou and three cold spots in the suburban districts. For individual effects, the temperature (q = 0.33) was the dominant factor of dengue fever, followed by precipitation (q = 0.24), road density (q = 0.24), and water body area (q = 0.23). For the interactive effects, the combination of high precipitation, high temperature, and high road density might result in increased dengue fever incidence. Moreover, urban villages might be the dengue fever hot spots. Conclusions: Our study suggests that some socio-ecological factors might either separately or jointly influence the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangzhou. View Full-Text
Keywords: dengue fever; socio-ecological factors; geographical detectors; GIS and RS dengue fever; socio-ecological factors; geographical detectors; GIS and RS

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cao, Z.; Liu, T.; Li, X.; Wang, J.; Lin, H.; Chen, L.; Wu, Z.; Ma, W. Individual and Interactive Effects of Socio-Ecological Factors on Dengue Fever at Fine Spatial Scale: A Geographical Detector-Based Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 795.

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