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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 768; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070768

Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China

1
Research Center for Environment and Health, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
2
School of Information and Safety Engineering, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
3
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason K. Levy
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Health, Risk Analysis and Environmental Hazards)
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Abstract

Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr6+ in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr6+ and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr6 + and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr6+ was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion. View Full-Text
Keywords: brownfield groundwater quality; toxic metals; steady two-dimensional attenuation model; simulative leakage assessment; health risk mapping brownfield groundwater quality; toxic metals; steady two-dimensional attenuation model; simulative leakage assessment; health risk mapping
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Li, F.; Qiu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Liu, W.; Liu, C.; Zeng, G. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 768.

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