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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 777; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070777

In Vitro and In Vivo Control of Secondary Bacterial Infection Caused by Leishmania major

1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Home Economics, Helwan University, Cairo 11221, Egypt
3
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
4
Chair Vaccines Research of Infectious Diseases, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
5
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo 11790, Egypt
6
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 12878, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panagiotis Karanis
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Abstract

Bacterial infections of cutaneous leishmaniasis cause skin ulcers on mice, resulting in increased tissue deterioration, and these infections can be controlled with liquid allicin. To isolate and identify the incidences of real secondary bacterial infections in mice, we performed the current study by injecting mice (n = 50) with Leishmania major. L. major infections were initiated by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 mL Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640 media/mouse (107 promastigote/mL)). Scarring appeared 2–6 weeks after injection, and the bacteria were isolated from the skin ulcer tissues. Allicin (50 µL/mL) and ciprofloxacin (5 μg; Cip 5) were used for controlling L. major and bacteria. One hundred samples from skin ulcers of mice were examined, and 200 bacterial colonies were isolated. Forty-eight different genera and species were obtained and identified by Gram staining and physiological and biochemical characterization using identification kits. All samples were positive for secondary bacterial infections. Of the isolates, 79.16% were identified as Gram-negative bacteria, and 28.84% were identified as Gram-positive bacteria; only one yeast species was found. Interestingly, pure allicin liquid at a concentration 50 µL/mL exhibited antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to yeast, and was 71.43% effective. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of all genera and species were determined using 15 different antibiotics. Allicin (50 µL/mL) and Cip 5 were the most effective against L. major and 92.30% of isolated bacteria. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the most resistant bacterium to the tested antibiotics with a survival rate of 73.33%, and it exhibited resistance to allicin. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; cutaneous leishmaniasis; Leishmania major; histopathological analysis; ciprofloxacin bacteria; cutaneous leishmaniasis; Leishmania major; histopathological analysis; ciprofloxacin
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Yehia, H.M.; Al-Olayan, E.M.; El-Khadragy, M.F.; Metwally, D.M. In Vitro and In Vivo Control of Secondary Bacterial Infection Caused by Leishmania major. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 777.

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