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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 576;

The Occurrence of the Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 in the Haihe River (China)

Department of Environment and Health, Tianjin Institute of Health and Environmental Medicine; Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control for Environment and Food Safety, No.1, Dali Road, Tianjin 300050, China
Animals, Plants and Food Testing Center of Tianjin Exit-Entry Inspection & Quarantine Bureau, Tianjin 300461, China
Tianjin Key Laboratory for Prevention and Control of Occupational and Environmental Hazards, Logistics University of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, No. 1, Hui-Zhi Ring Road, Tianjin 300309, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Antibiotic failure is occurring worldwide. In a routine surveillance study on antibioticresistance genes (ARGs) in natural water bodies, we noted the detection of colistin-resistance gene mcr-1, previously identified in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from human beings and animals in several countries. The mcr-1 gene might be present in water environments, because aquatic ecosystems are recognized as reservoirs for antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and ARGs. In this study, a qPCR assay was developed to monitor and quantify the mcr-1 gene in the Haihe River, China. The results showed that all 18 samples collected from different locations over 6 months along the Haihe River were positive for the mcr-1 gene, and the highest level of mcr-1 reached 3.81 × 105 gene copies (GC) per liter of water. This is the first study to quantify mcr-1 in a natural water system by qPCR. Our findings highlight the potential for this antibiotic resistance determinant to spread extensively, suggesting a significant health and ecological impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: colistin-resistance gene; mcr-1; water environments; dissemination; public health colistin-resistance gene; mcr-1; water environments; dissemination; public health

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Yang, D.; Qiu, Z.; Shen, Z.; Zhao, H.; Jin, M.; Li, H.; Liu, W.; Li, J.-W. The Occurrence of the Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 in the Haihe River (China). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 576.

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