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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 556; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060556

A Review of the Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

1
Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (CCEB), School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia
2
Mercy Corps, Pak Palace, Murree Road, Rawal Chowk, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia
4
Centre for Health and Development (CHAD), Dhaka 1219, Bangladesh
5
Managing Principal, JBS&G, Brisbane 4000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Warish Ahmed and David J. Beale
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [300 KB, uploaded 23 May 2017]

Abstract

Exposure to arsenic has a number of known detrimental health effects but impact on pregnancy outcomes is not as widely recognized. This narrative review examines existing epidemiological evidence investigating the association between arsenic exposure via drinking water and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed published epidemiological studies from around the world on impact of chronic arsenic exposure on spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, post neonatal death, low birth weight and preterm baby. Plausible mechanisms of arsenic toxicity causing adverse pregnancy outcomes were also determined through literature review. There is convincing evidence to support the association between high inorganic arsenic exposure (>50 ppb) and spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and low birth weight. Limitations of certain studies include study design, small sample size, recall constraints and exposure assessment. There needs to be further research investigating the dose metered impact of arsenic exposure on pregnancy outcomes. Further research on impact of low–moderate arsenic concentration exposure on pregnancy outcomes will allow for appropriate public health policy recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; pregnancy outcomes; chronic exposure; drinking water arsenic; pregnancy outcomes; chronic exposure; drinking water
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Milton, A.H.; Hussain, S.; Akter, S.; Rahman, M.; Mouly, T.A.; Mitchell, K. A Review of the Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 556.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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