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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 548; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050548

Evaluation of Drinking Water Disinfectant Byproducts Compliance Data as an Indirect Measure for Short-Term Exposure in Humans

1
Department of Environmental Health Science, Indiana University Fairbanks School of Public Health, 1050 Wishard Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology, Indiana University Fairbanks School of Public Health, 1050 Wishard Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1082 KB, uploaded 20 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

In the absence of shorter term disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) data on regulated Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs), epidemiologists and risk assessors have used long-term annual compliance (LRAA) or quarterly (QA) data to evaluate the association between DBP exposure and adverse birth outcomes, which resulted in inconclusive findings. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of using long-term LRAA and QA data as an indirect measure for short-term exposure. Short-term residential tap water samples were collected in peak DBP months (May–August) in a community water system with five separate treatment stations and were sourced from surface or groundwater. Samples were analyzed for THMs and HAAs per the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standard methods (524.2 and 552.2). The measured levels of total THMs and HAAs were compared temporally and spatially with LRAA and QA data, which showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Most samples from surface water stations showed higher levels than LRAA or QA. Significant numbers of samples in surface water stations exceeded regulatory permissible limits: 27% had excessive THMs and 35% had excessive HAAs. Trichloromethane, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid were the major drivers of variability. This study suggests that LRAA and QA data are not good proxies of short-term exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine if other drinking water systems show consistent findings for improved regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: disinfection byproducts; drinking water; Trihalomethanes; Haloacetic acids; temporal variability; exposure assessment; locational running annual average; birth outcomes disinfection byproducts; drinking water; Trihalomethanes; Haloacetic acids; temporal variability; exposure assessment; locational running annual average; birth outcomes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Parvez, S.; Frost, K.; Sundararajan, M. Evaluation of Drinking Water Disinfectant Byproducts Compliance Data as an Indirect Measure for Short-Term Exposure in Humans. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 548.

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