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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 508; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050508

Spatial Analysis of Ambient PM2.5 Exposure and Bladder Cancer Mortality in Taiwan

1
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan 350, Taiwan
2
Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan
3
Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
4
Department of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 400, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason K. Levy
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant that is receiving intense regulatory attention in Taiwan. In previous studies, the effect of air pollution on bladder cancer has been explored. This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of atmospheric PM2.5 and other local risk factors on bladder cancer mortality based on available 13-year mortality data. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to estimate and interpret the spatial variability of the relationships between bladder cancer mortality and ambient PM2.5 concentrations, and other variables were covariates used to adjust for the effect of PM2.5. After applying a GWR model, the concentration of ambient PM2.5 showed a positive correlation with bladder cancer mortality in males in northern Taiwan and females in most of the townships in Taiwan. This is the first time PM2.5 has been identified as a risk factor for bladder cancer based on the statistical evidence provided by GWR analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine particles; air pollution; Geographic Information Systems; Bladder Cancer; smoking fine particles; air pollution; Geographic Information Systems; Bladder Cancer; smoking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, H.-L.; Hsu, S.-W.; Chang, Y.-C.; Chan, T.-C.; Tsou, H.-C.; Chang, Y.-C.; Chiang, P.-H. Spatial Analysis of Ambient PM2.5 Exposure and Bladder Cancer Mortality in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 508.

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