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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1456; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121456

Urinary Phthalate Concentrations in Mothers and Their Children in Ireland: Results of the DEMOCOPHES Human Biomonitoring Study

1
Department of Community of Health, Health Service Executive, St. Mary’s, Naas, Kildare W91 NR29, Ireland
2
Department of Public Health, Health Service Executive, Galway H91973, Ireland
3
Public Analyst’s Laboratory, Health Service Executive, Dublin D02 P667, Ireland
4
Public Analyst’s Laboratory, Health Service Executive, Galway H91 Y952, Ireland
5
Project Manager, Health Service Executive, Palmerstown, Dublin D20 X318, Ireland
6
Environmental Health Service, Health Service Executive, Carrick on Shannon, Co Leitrim N41 XC59, Ireland
7
Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Sustainable Health Mol B-2400, Belgium
8
Biomedical Department, University of Antwerp, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium
9
Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels 1060, Belgium
10
Center for Human Genetics, University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
11
Carlos 111 Institute of Health, National Centre for Environmental Health, Majadahonda, Madrid 28220, Spain
12
German Environment Agency, Berlin 14195, Germany
13
Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum 44789, Germany
14
Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 1353, Denmark
15
BiPRO GmbH, Munich 81545, Germany
16
Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton OX11 ORQ, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ, UK
Deceased 6 August 2017.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract

Background: Phthalates are chemicals which are widespread in the environment. Although the impacts on health of such exposure are unclear, there is evidence of a possible impact on the incidence of a diverse range of diseases. Monitoring of human exposure to phthalates is therefore important. This study aimed to determine the extent of phthalate exposure among mothers and their children in both rural and urban areas in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated concentrations. It formed part of the ‘Demonstration of a study to Co-ordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale’ (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: the concentration of phthalate metabolites were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. The median age of the children was 8 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information regarding lifestyle and environmental conditions of the children and mothers. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Phthalate metabolites were detected in all of the samples from both children and mothers. Concentrations were significantly higher in respondents from families with lower educational attainment and in those exposed to such items as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fast food and personal care products (PCP). Conclusions: The study demonstrates that human biomonitoring for assessing exposure to phthalates can be undertaken in Ireland and that the exposure of the population is widespread. Further work will be necessary before the consequences of this exposure are understood. View Full-Text
Keywords: phthalates; human biomonitoring; exposure; endocrine disruptors phthalates; human biomonitoring; exposure; endocrine disruptors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cullen, E.; Evans, D.; Griffin, C.; Burke, P.; Mannion, R.; Burns, D.; Flanagan, A.; Kellegher, A.; Schoeters, G.; Govarts, E.; Biot, P.; Casteleyn, L.; Castaño, A.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Esteban, M.; Schwedler, G.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, R.; Joas, A.; Dumez, B.; Sepai, O.; Exley, K.; Aerts, D. Urinary Phthalate Concentrations in Mothers and Their Children in Ireland: Results of the DEMOCOPHES Human Biomonitoring Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1456.

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