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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1414; doi:10.3390/ijerph14111414

Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) in Ultraviolet (UV)-Filters

1
School of Energy & Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210042, China
2
Taihu Lake Water Environment Engineering Research Center (Wuxi), Southeast University, Wuxi 210042, China
3
Research Center of Watershed Ecological Conservation and Water Pollution Control, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing 210042, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
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Abstract

Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are used in personal care products for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment in the production and consumption processes, little is known about their ecotoxicology effects. The acute toxicity and potential ecological risk of UV filters benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and benzophenone-4 (BP-4) on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and Brachydanio rerio were analyzed in the present study. The EC50 values (96 h) of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris were 2.98 and 201.00 mg/L, respectively. The 48 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on D. magna were 1.09 and 47.47 mg/L, respectively. The 96 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on B. rerio were 3.89 and 633.00 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of a mixture of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris, D. magna, and B. rerio all showed antagonistic effects. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations of BP-3 and BP-4 by the assessment factor method were 1.80 × 10−3 and 0.47 mg/L, respectively, by assessment factor (AF) method, which were both lower than the concentrations detected in the environment at present, verifying that BP-3 and BP-4 remain low-risk chemicals to the aquatic ecosystem. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzophenone-3; benzophenone-4; UV filters; acute toxicity; ecological risk assessment benzophenone-3; benzophenone-4; UV filters; acute toxicity; ecological risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Du, Y.; Wang, W.-Q.; Pei, Z.-T.; Ahmad, F.; Xu, R.-R.; Zhang, Y.-M.; Sun, L.-W. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) in Ultraviolet (UV)-Filters. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1414.

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