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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101167

Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

1
AUTARCON GmbH, D-34117 Kassel, Germany
2
International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal 741235, India
3
Kalyani Shine India, Kalyani, West Bengal 741235, India
4
Division of Water Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Dresden, D-01069 Dresden, Germany
5
Public Health Engineering Department, Kalyani, West Bengal 741235, India
6
AIMEN, C/. Relva, 27 A—Torneiros, Porriño, 36410 Pontevedra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic Contamination, Bioavailability and Public Health)
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Abstract

Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V) occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L), iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L), manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L), phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L) and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L) concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L), >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L), 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L), 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L) and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L) were achieved—without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic removal; electro-chlorination; oxidation; co-precipitation; chlorination; decentralized drinking water supply arsenic removal; electro-chlorination; oxidation; co-precipitation; chlorination; decentralized drinking water supply
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Otter, P.; Malakar, P.; Jana, B.B.; Grischek, T.; Benz, F.; Goldmaier, A.; Feistel, U.; Jana, J.; Lahiri, S.; Alvarez, J.A. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1167.

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