Next Article in Journal
Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal
Next Article in Special Issue
Socio-Ecological Intervention to Promote Active Commuting to Work: Protocol and Baseline Findings of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Finland
Previous Article in Journal
Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria
Previous Article in Special Issue
Active Transportation on a Complete Street: Perceived and Audited Walkability Correlates
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101166

Distance, Duration, and Velocity in Cycle Commuting: Analyses of Relations and Determinants of Velocity

1
Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Unit for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2821 KB, uploaded 17 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as to what extent other relevant variables may affect cycling velocities. 1661 cycle commuters (34% males) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden have been studied for that purpose. Methods: The participants were recruited with advertisements. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal cycling route. Route distances were measured by a criterion method. Age, sex, weight, height, and cycling durations to work were self-reported. The commuting routes were positioned in relation to inner urban and/or suburban–rural areas. Linear multiple regression analyses were used. Results: Cycling speeds were positively related to commuting distances or durations, being male, of younger age, having higher body weight but lower body mass index (BMI), and using the last digits 1–4 or 6–9 in duration reports (as compared to 0 and 5), as well as cycling in suburban (versus inner urban) areas. Conclusions: The study provides new knowledge about how distance and duration, as well as other factors, relate to the velocity of commuter cycling. It thereby enables the use of more appropriate input values in, for instance, health economic assessments and epidemiological health studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: cycling; commuting; distance; duration; velocity; environment; sex; age; body weight; BMI cycling; commuting; distance; duration; velocity; environment; sex; age; body weight; BMI
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schantz, P. Distance, Duration, and Velocity in Cycle Commuting: Analyses of Relations and Determinants of Velocity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1166.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top