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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1147; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101147

Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

1
Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
2
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, 1542 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
3
Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, 1700 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
4
Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education, Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Exposure and Effects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [675 KB, uploaded 29 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. View Full-Text
Keywords: tobacco; cigarette; smoking; adverse health effects; non-pharmacologic therapy; pharmacotherapy tobacco; cigarette; smoking; adverse health effects; non-pharmacologic therapy; pharmacotherapy
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Onor, I.O.; Stirling, D.L.; Williams, S.R.; Bediako, D.; Borghol, A.; Harris, M.B.; Darensburg, T.B.; Clay, S.D.; Okpechi, S.C.; Sarpong, D.F. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1147.

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