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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1105; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101105

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in Three-to-Five-Year-Old Children

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon 35223, Korea
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
3
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon 22332, Korea
4
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 61453, Korea
5
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine , Dong-A University, Busan 50612, Korea
6
Department of Preventive Medicine, Cheju Halla University, Jeju 63585, Korea
7
Department of Information and Statistics, Korea National Open University, Seoul 03087, Korea
8
Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea
9
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Exposure and Effects)
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Abstract

Exposure to harmful environmental factors is particularly detrimental to younger children. We investigated the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in pre-schoolers at home and the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a predictive factor for cardiovascular disease. This study was conducted in 2014 and was based on the data of preschool children from the Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (2012 to 2014), a nationally representative sample. Of 577 children, aged three to five years, 482 were eventually selected for the analysis after excluding those with missing variables, or whose hs-CRP level exceeded the reference value. The proportion of pre-school children exposed to ETS at home was 14.8%. The odd ratios (OR)s of hs-CRP > 1mg/L were 4.90 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.04–23.17) and 11.66 (95% CI = 1.90–71.65) in the groups exposed to ETS 3–4 times and ≥5 times daily, respectively, compared to the non-exposed group. The risk of elevated levels of hs-CRP showed an increasing trend proportionally to the increase in ETS exposure frequency (p for trend = 0.03). Anti-smoking educational programs for parents and guardians may be helpful to reduce ETS exposure at home. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; hs-CRP; preschool children; cardiovascular risk factors environmental tobacco smoke; hs-CRP; preschool children; cardiovascular risk factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kang, E.; Kim, S.Y.; Chang, S.S.; Lim, S.; Kim, H.-C.; Lee, C.-G.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kim, S.Y.; Lee, K.-J.; Kim, S.; Ha, M. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in Three-to-Five-Year-Old Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1105.

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