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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 58; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010058

Critical Windows of Prenatal Exposure to Cadmium and Size at Birth

1
Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education and Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430000, Hubei, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430000, Hubei, China
3
Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, Wuhan 430000, Hubei, China
4
Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
5
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
6
Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63103, USA
7
College of Earth and Environmental Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susanne Charlesworth
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 9 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals: Environmental and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [302 KB, uploaded 9 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Prenatal cadmium (Cd) exposure has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but the findings of previous studies are inconsistent. We measured Cd concentrations in urine samples at or near 13, 24, and 35 gestational weeks from 282 women in Wuhan, China. We used generalized estimating equation models to assess the associations between maternal creatinine adjusted urinary Cd concentrations at each trimester and birth size. A significant inverse association was observed between higher maternal Cd levels measured during the 1st trimester and birth size in girls. For each log unit increase in Cd (µg/g creatinine) levels from the 1st trimester, there was a decrease in birth weight by 116.99 g (95% confidence interval (CI): −208.87, −25.11 g). The Cd levels from the 1st and 2nd trimesters were also borderline significantly associated with ponderal index in girls. Joint estimation of trimester-specific effects suggested that associations with Cd levels for ponderal index (pint = 0.02) were significantly different across trimesters, and differences for effects across trimesters for birth weight were marginally significant (pint = 0.08) in girls. No significant associations were observed between Cd levels from any trimester and birth size in boys. Maternal Cd exposure during earlier periods of pregnancy may have a larger impact on delayed fetal growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; birth weight; fetal exposure; critical window; epidemiology cadmium; birth weight; fetal exposure; critical window; epidemiology
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Cheng, L.; Zhang, B.; Zheng, T.; Hu, J.; Zhou, A.; Bassig, B.A.; Xia, W.; Savitz, D.A.; Buka, S.; Xiong, C.; Braun, J.M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Pan, X.; Wu, C.; Wang, Y.; Qian, Z.; Yang, A.; Romano, M.E.; Shi, K.; Xu, S.; Li, Y. Critical Windows of Prenatal Exposure to Cadmium and Size at Birth. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 58.

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