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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 860; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090860

Relationships of Community and Individual Level Social Capital with Activities of Daily Living and Death by Gender

1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Toho University, Tokyo 143-8540, Japan
2
Institute of General Education, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan
3
Environmental Epidemiology Section, Centre for Health and Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marcia G. Ory and Matthew Lee Smith
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Health Promotion)
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Abstract

This study determined whether there is an association between social capital and a composite outcome of decline in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and death by gender. A prospective 3.5 year cohort study was conducted in a rural town in Japan. The study participants were 984 individuals aged 65 years and older with not impaired on ADL at 2010 baseline survey. Social participation and generalized trust were measured as social capital. The individual level responses were dichotomized and aggregated into the community level (eight areas). Multilevel logistic regression adjusting for covariates revealed that social participation at the individual level was significantly associated with higher odds of composite outcome (OR of “not participate” = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38–2.81). Regarding generalized trust, only in men, there was an inverse association at the community level (OR of “low” = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32–0.96), and a positive association at the individual level (OR of “tend to be careful” = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.27–3.90). These results suggest that social capital were associated with a decline in ADL and death and that the association may differ by gender. View Full-Text
Keywords: Activities of Daily Living; death; social capital; participation; trust Activities of Daily Living; death; social capital; participation; trust
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MDPI and ACS Style

Imamura, H.; Hamano, T.; Michikawa, T.; Takeda-Imai, F.; Nakamura, T.; Takebayashi, T.; Nishiwaki, Y. Relationships of Community and Individual Level Social Capital with Activities of Daily Living and Death by Gender. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 860.

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