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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 846; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090846

Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

1
Department of Life Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), P.O. Box 468, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rao Bhamidiammarri and Kiran Tota-Maharaj
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 9 July 2016 / Accepted: 9 July 2016 / Published: 25 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2736 KB, uploaded 25 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioaugmentation; biodegradation; bioremediation; industrial wastewater; pollution; bacteria; quorum sensing; nanotechnology; protozoan grazing; bacteriophage; cell-immobilization; transfection and plasmid transfer bioaugmentation; biodegradation; bioremediation; industrial wastewater; pollution; bacteria; quorum sensing; nanotechnology; protozoan grazing; bacteriophage; cell-immobilization; transfection and plasmid transfer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nzila, A.; Razzak, S.A.; Zhu, J. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 846.

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