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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 751; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080751

Multilevel Analysis of Socioeconomic Determinants on Diabetes Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Self-Management in Ethnic Minorities of Yunnan Province, China

1
School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, 1168 Yu Hua Street, Chun Rong Road, Cheng Gong New City, Kunming 650500, China
2
Department of Gerontology, The Affiliated Ganmei Hospital of Kunming Medical University, 504 Qing Nian Road, Kunming 650011, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Omorogieva Ojo
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Care and Diabetes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [282 KB, uploaded 25 July 2016]

Abstract

Objectives: The objective of this manuscript is to investigate socioeconomic differences in prevalence, awareness, treatment and self-management of diabetes among ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 5532 Na Xi, Li Su, Dai and Jing Po ethnic minorities. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes prevalence, as well as the other outcomes. Results: Higher individual educational level was associated with a higher rate of awareness, treatment, adherence to medicines and monitoring of blood glucose (OR = 1.87, 4.89, 4.83, 6.45; 95% CI: 1.26–2.77, 1.87–12.7, 1.95–11.9, 2.23–18.6, respectively). Diabetic respondents with better household assets tended to receive more treatment (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.11–7.12) and to monitor their blood glucose (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.48–7.30). Diabetic patients with better access to medical services were more likely to treat (OR = 7.09, 95% CI: 2.46–20.4) and adhere to medication (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.46–11.7). Income at the contextual level was significantly correlated with diabetes prevalence, treatment and blood glucose monitoring (OR = 1.84, 3.04, 4.34; 95% CI: 1.20–2.83, 1.20–7.73, 1.45–13.0, respectively). Conclusions: Future diabetes prevention and intervention programs should take both individual and township-level socioeconomic factors into account in the study regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: unique ethnic minority; diabetes; prevalence; self-management; multilevel modeling; socioeconomic status unique ethnic minority; diabetes; prevalence; self-management; multilevel modeling; socioeconomic status
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Su, R.; Cai, L.; Cui, W.; He, J.; You, D.; Golden, A. Multilevel Analysis of Socioeconomic Determinants on Diabetes Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Self-Management in Ethnic Minorities of Yunnan Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 751.

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