Next Article in Journal
A Multilevel Study of Students in Vietnam: Drinking Motives and Drinking Context as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption
Next Article in Special Issue
Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade
Previous Article in Journal
Performance Analysis of Stop-Skipping Scheduling Plans in Rail Transit under Time-Dependent Demand
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 709; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070709

Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

1
Center for Health and the Global Environment, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
2
Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad de Colima, Coquimatlán 28400, Mexico
3
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Unidad de Medicina Familiar 19. Colima, Colima 28000, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jason K. Levy and Peiyong Yu
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 6 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Economics, Environmental Health Policy and Climate Change)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [689 KB, uploaded 13 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; corn; DALYs life cycle assessment; corn; DALYs
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mendoza-Cano, O.; Sánchez-Piña, R.A.; González-Ibarra, Á.J.; Murillo-Zamora, E.; Nava-Garibaldi, C.M. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 709.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top