Next Article in Journal
Land-Use Conversion Changes the Multifractal Features of Particle-Size Distribution on the Loess Plateau of China
Next Article in Special Issue
Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations
Previous Article in Journal
Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 789; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080789

Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade

Business and Environmental Technology Economics Lab, Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, Xanthi 67100, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason K. Levy
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 5 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Economics, Environmental Health Policy and Climate Change)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1348 KB, uploaded 5 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country’s economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-waste; human development index; illegal trade; open markets index; social progress index e-waste; human development index; illegal trade; open markets index; social progress index
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Efthymiou, L.; Mavragani, A.; Tsagarakis, K.P. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 789.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top