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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 627; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070627

The Impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on Outpatient Visits for Coronary Heart Disease in Shanghai, China

1,2,3,†
,
4,†
,
1,2,3
,
4
and
1,2,3,*
1
Department of Occupational Medicine, Yangpu Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200090, China
2
Department of Occupational Medicine, Yangpu District Central Hospital, Shanghai 200090, China
3
Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Medical School, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200090, China
4
School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [263 KB, uploaded 23 June 2016]

Abstract

There have been relatively few opportunities to examine the cardiovascular effects of an extreme air pollution event in China. We aimed to examine the impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog occurring from 2 to 9 December 2013, on outpatient visits for coronary heart diseases (CHD) in a typical hospital in Shanghai, China. We used the over-dispersed, generalized additive model to estimate the relative risk (RR) of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on the outpatient visits by comparing the smog period (2–9 December 2013; 8 days) to the non-smog period (1 November–1 December 2013, and 10 December–28 February 2014; 112 days). This model also controlled for time trends, days of the week, holidays, and meteorological factors. A stratification analysis was performed to estimate sex- and age-specific RRs. The daily average PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) concentrations during the smog period were 212 μg/m3, which were three times higher than during the non-smog period (76 μg/m3). The smog in Eastern China in 2013 was significantly associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for CHD. For example, the RR was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.32) on lag 0 day. There were similar effects on males and females. Our analyses provided preliminary evidence that smog constituted a significant risk factor of CHD in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: smog; air pollution; coronary heart disease; outpatient visits; time-series smog; air pollution; coronary heart disease; outpatient visits; time-series
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, F.; Chen, R.; Shen, Y.; Kan, H.; Kuang, X. The Impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on Outpatient Visits for Coronary Heart Disease in Shanghai, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 627.

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