Next Article in Journal
The Impact of the 2013 Eastern China Smog on Outpatient Visits for Coronary Heart Disease in Shanghai, China
Previous Article in Journal
Factors Influencing Anti-Malarial Prophylaxis and Iron Supplementation Non-Compliance among Pregnant Women in Simiyu Region, Tanzania
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 625; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070625

Comparison of Effect of Two-Hour Exposure to Forest and Urban Environments on Cytokine, Anti-Oxidant, and Stress Levels in Young Adults

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul Paik Hospital, College of Medicine Inje University, Seoul 04551, Korea
Graduate School of Art Therapy, Cha University, Sungnam 11160, Korea
Department of Child Psychology and Education, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 110-745, Korea
Korea Employee Assistance Professionals Association, Seoul 04551, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Harry Timmermans
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [773 KB, uploaded 23 June 2016]   |  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two-hour exposure to a forest environment on cytokine, anti-oxidant and stress levels among university students and to compare the results to those measured in urban environments. Forty-one subjects were recruited. For our crossover design, subjects were divided into two groups based on similar demographic characteristics. Group A remained in the urban environment and was asked to perform regular breathing for 2 h. Blood samples were collected and the serum levels of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were examined. Subjects were moved to a small town in a rural area for an equal amount of time to exclude carryover effects, and then remained for another 2 h in a forest environment. The second set of blood samples was collected to assess the effect of exposure to the forest environment. Using the same method, Group B was first exposed to the forest environment, followed by exposure to the urban environment. Blood samples collected after the subjects were exposed to the forest environment showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 and TNF-α compared to those in samples collected after urban environment exposure (10.76 vs. 9.21, t = 4.559, p < 0.001, and 0.97 vs. 0.87, t = 4.130, p < 0.001). The GPx concentration increased significantly after exposure to the forest environment (LnGPx = 5.09 vs. LnGPx = 5.21, t = −2.039, p < 0.05). View Full-Text
Keywords: forest; cytokines; glutathione; interleukin; antioxidant; crossover design forest; cytokines; glutathione; interleukin; antioxidant; crossover design

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Im, S.G.; Choi, H.; Jeon, Y.-H.; Song, M.-K.; Kim, W.; Woo, J.-M. Comparison of Effect of Two-Hour Exposure to Forest and Urban Environments on Cytokine, Anti-Oxidant, and Stress Levels in Young Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 625.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top