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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 503; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050503

Physiological and Molecular Response of Prorocentrum minimum to Tannic Acid: An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Tannic Acid in Controling the Red Tide in a Eutrophic Coastal Water

1
Department of Environmental Engineering & Biotechnology, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, Korea
2
Laboratory Oil Pollution Research Center, National Park Research Institute, Taean 357-914, Korea
3
Laboratory Animal Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, Daegu 701-310, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
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Abstract

Bioassay and gene expression experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the growth and physiology of Prorocentrum minimum isolated from a eutrophic coastal water in response to tannic acid. In the bioassay experiments, variations in abundance, chlorophyll (chl) a concentration, maximum fluorescence (in vivo Fm), and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) were measured over the course of a seven-day incubation. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in both the control and an experimental (2.5 ppm TA treatment) group was observed for 24 h and 48 h. The molecular markers used in this study were the heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90) and cyclophilin (CYP). The findings show that P. minimum can thrive and grow at low concentrations (<2.5 ppm) of tannic acid, and, above this concentration, cells begin to slow down development. In addition, TA concentration of 10 ppm halted photosynthetic activity. At the molecular level, treatment with tannic acid increased the expression of Hsp70, Hsp90, and CYP, and heat shock proteins are more upregulated than the cyclophilin gene. Exposure to tannic acid increased the expression of stress factors over time (48 h) by 10- to 27-fold the expression level of the control group. These results suggest that tannic acid can be used to control harmful algal blooms such as those containing P. minimum in eutrophic coastal waters. View Full-Text
Keywords: harmful algal bloom; Prorocentrum minimum; red tide; tannic acid harmful algal bloom; Prorocentrum minimum; red tide; tannic acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jeong, B.; Jeong, E.-S.; Malazarte, J.M.; Sin, Y. Physiological and Molecular Response of Prorocentrum minimum to Tannic Acid: An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Tannic Acid in Controling the Red Tide in a Eutrophic Coastal Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 503.

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