Next Article in Journal
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence
Previous Article in Journal
Physiological and Molecular Response of Prorocentrum minimum to Tannic Acid: An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Tannic Acid in Controling the Red Tide in a Eutrophic Coastal Water
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 504; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050504

Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

1
Department of Epigenetic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan
2
Department of Local Produce and Food Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu-City, Yamanashi 400-8510, Japan
Present affiliation: Yamanashi Prefecture Red Cross Blood Center, Japanese Red Cross Society, 1-6-1 Ikeda, Kofu-city, Yamanashi 400-0062, Japan.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Margot Van de Bor
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 23 April 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Environmental Factors on Autism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [548 KB, uploaded 14 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; epigenetics; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; early life exposure; mental stress; maternal diet; neurotransmitters; immune dysregulation autism spectrum disorder; epigenetics; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; early life exposure; mental stress; maternal diet; neurotransmitters; immune dysregulation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kubota, T.; Mochizuki, K. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 504.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top