Next Article in Journal
Physiological and Molecular Response of Prorocentrum minimum to Tannic Acid: An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Tannic Acid in Controling the Red Tide in a Eutrophic Coastal Water
Previous Article in Journal
Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 501; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050501

Nonylphenol Toxicity Evaluation and Discovery of Biomarkers in Rat Urine by a Metabolomics Strategy through HPLC-QTOF-MS

1
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
2
Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety, Institute of Quality Standard & Testing Technology for Agro-Product, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
3
Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huang-Tsung Chang
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3240 KB, uploaded 14 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Nonylphenol (NP) was quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the urine and plasma of rats treated with 0, 50, and 250 mg/kg/day of NP for four consecutive days. A urinary metabolomic strategy was originally implemented by high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) to explore the toxicological effects of NP and determine the overall alterations in the metabolite profiles so as to find potential biomarkers. It is essential to point out that from the observation, the metabolic data were clearly clustered and separated for the three groups. To further identify differentiated metabolites, multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), high-resolution MS/MS analysis, as well as searches of Metlin and Massbank databases, were conducted on a series of metabolites between the control and dose groups. Finally, five metabolites, including glycine, glycerophosphocholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, malonaldehyde (showing an upward trend), and tryptophan (showing a downward trend), were identified as the potential urinary biomarkers of NP-induced toxicity. In order to validate the reliability of these potential biomarkers, an independent validation was performed by using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based targeted approach. The oxidative stress reflected by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels was elevated in individuals highly exposed to NP, supporting the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction was a result of xenoestrogen accumulation. This study reveals a promising approach to find biomarkers to assist researchers in monitoring NP. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonylphenol; metabolomics; exposure; HPLC-QTOF-MS; biomarker nonylphenol; metabolomics; exposure; HPLC-QTOF-MS; biomarker
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.-X.; Yang, X.; Zou, P.; Du, P.-F.; Wang, J.; Jin, F.; Jin, M.-J.; She, Y.-X. Nonylphenol Toxicity Evaluation and Discovery of Biomarkers in Rat Urine by a Metabolomics Strategy through HPLC-QTOF-MS. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 501.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top