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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 471; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050471

Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

1
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, 4K3, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent 9000, Belgium
2
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Achterstraβe 30, Bremen D-28359, Germany
3
Department of Health Sciences, Vesalius, University College Ghent, Keramiekstraat 80, Ghent 9000, Belgium
4
Child Health Research and Education Institute, 56 Stavrou Street, Strovolos 2035, Cyprus
5
Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Avellino 83100, Italy
6
Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg 416 85, Sweden
7
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, József Attila str. 7, Pécs H-7623, Hungary
8
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Domingo Miral s/n, Zaragoza 50009, Spain
9
Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, Hiiu str. 42, Tallinn 11619, Estonia
10
Institute for Statistics, University of Bremen, Bibliothekestraβe 1, Bremen 28359, Germany
11
FWO, Research Foundation Flanders, Egmontstraat 5, Brussels 1000, Belgium
On behalf of the IDEFICS Consortium.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marlena Kruger and Hope Weiler
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Health: Nutritional Perspectives)
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Abstract

This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. View Full-Text
Keywords: potassium; sodium; calcium; magnesium; phosphate; children; calcaneal quantitative ultrasound potassium; sodium; calcium; magnesium; phosphate; children; calcaneal quantitative ultrasound
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Van den Bussche, K.; Herrmann, D.; De Henauw, S.; Kourides, Y.A.; Lauria, F.; Marild, S.; Molnár, D.; Moreno, L.A.; Veidebaum, T.; Ahrens, W.; Sioen, I. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 471.

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