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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 352; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030352

Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

1
Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia 46100, Spain
2
Biomedical Research Center Network on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid 28029, Spain
3
Center for Advanced Research in Public Health (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia 46010, Spain
4
Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Valencia 46100, Spain
5
Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada 46113, Spain
6
Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain
7
Department of Psychiatry, University of Valencia, Valencia 46100, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 January 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren’s mental health. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrients intake; nutritional intake; nutrition; depressive symptoms; carbohydrates; children nutrients intake; nutritional intake; nutrition; depressive symptoms; carbohydrates; children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rubio-López, N.; Morales-Suárez-Varela, M.; Pico, Y.; Livianos-Aldana, L.; Llopis-González, A. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 352.

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