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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 303; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030303

Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

1
Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
2
Ghana School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra PO Box LG13, Ghana
3
Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health (PHE), World Health Organization, Geneva 1211 Switzerland
4
Social Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 4 December 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract

There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p < 0.001), whilst packaged (sachet or bottled) water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001), compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; beverages; Escherichia coli; West Africa; Survey methodology drinking water; beverages; Escherichia coli; West Africa; Survey methodology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wright, J.; Dzodzomenyo, M.; Wardrop, N.A.; Johnston, R.; Hill, A.; Aryeetey, G.; Adanu, R. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 303.

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