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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 305; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030305

Concurrent Heroin Use and Correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clients: A 12-Month Follow-up Study in Guangdong Province, China

1
Faculty of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou 510080, China
2
Sun Yat-sen Center for Migrant Health Policy, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou 510080, China
3
Guangdong Center for Skin Guangdong Provincial Center for Skin Diseases and STIs Control, No. 2 Lujing Road, Guangzhou 510091, China
4
The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amie Hayley and Joris Cornelis Verster
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [296 KB, uploaded 9 March 2016]

Abstract

Objective: To assess concurrent heroin use and correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clients in Guangdong Province, China. Method: Demographic and drug use data were collected with a structured questionnaire, and MMT information was obtained from the MMT clinic registration system in Guangdong. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected status and urine morphine results were obtained from laboratory tests. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the factors associated with concurrent heroin use. Results: Among the 6848 participants, 75% continued using heroin more than once during the first 12 months after treatment initiation. Concurrent heroin use was associated with inharmonious family relationship (OR (odds ratio) = 1.49, 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.24–1.78), HIV positivity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.55), having multiple sex partners (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.69), having ever taken intravenous drugs (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.95), higher maintenance dose (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01–1.28) and poorer MMT attendance (OR<20% = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53; OR20%– = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14–1.54; OR50%– = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.44–2.00). Among those who used heroin concurrently, the same factors, and additionally being older (OR35– = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43; OR≥45 = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.30–2.05) and female (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), contribute to a greater frequency of heroin use. Conclusions: Concurrent heroin use was prevalent among MMT participants in Guangdong, underscoring the urgent needs for tailored interventions and health education programs for this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: concurrent drug use; Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT); China concurrent drug use; Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT); China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Luo, X.; Zhao, P.; Gong, X.; Zhang, L.; Tang, W.; Zou, X.; Chen, W.; Ling, L. Concurrent Heroin Use and Correlates among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clients: A 12-Month Follow-up Study in Guangdong Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 305.

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