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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 282; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030282

Understanding Inequalities of Maternal Smoking—Bridging the Gap with Adapted Intervention Strategies

1
Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ontario, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
2
School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Coral Gartner and Britta Wigginton
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [309 KB, uploaded 4 March 2016]

Abstract

Women who are generally part of socially disadvantaged and economically marginalized groups are especially susceptible to smoking during pregnancy but smoking rates are underreported in both research and interventions. While there is evidence to support the short-term efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use in pregnancy, long-term abstinence rates are modest. Current health strategies and interventions designed to diminish smoking in pregnancy have adopted a simplified approach to maternal smoking—one that suggests that they have a similar degree of choice to non-pregnant smokers regarding the avoidance of risk factors, and overlooks individual predictors of non-adherence. As a result, interventions have been ineffective among this high-risk group. For this reason, this paper addresses the multiple and interacting determinants that must be considered when developing and implementing effective strategies that lead to successful smoking cessation: socioeconomic status (SES), nicotine dependence, social support, culture, mental health, and health services. Based on our review of the literature, we conclude that tailoring cessation programs for pregnant smokers may ultimately optimize NRT efficacy and reduce the prevalence of maternal smoking. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking cessation; pregnancy; socioeconomic status; dependence; social support; culture; mental health; health services smoking cessation; pregnancy; socioeconomic status; dependence; social support; culture; mental health; health services
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Boucher, J.; Konkle, A.T.M. Understanding Inequalities of Maternal Smoking—Bridging the Gap with Adapted Intervention Strategies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 282.

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